Monday, January 10, 2011

Corruption in Namokar Mantra

How the corrupted Jain monks played with Namokar Mantra....

(This article is based on the research book `Prakrit Sahitya Ka Itihas' by Dr. Jagdish Chandra Jain, `Moulik Jain Itihas' by Acharya Hastimalji and other works by Jain scholars. Intension behind writing this article is not to hurt the sentiments of anybody, but to tell the truth. This will help the blind believers to come out of blind devotion and to think logically.)

Most of the Jains think that Namokar Mantra is `Anadhi-Nidhan' i.e. it exists from beginning and it will remain forever and that to in present form.

If it was true, then the 2200 years old inscription of emperor Kharwel, who himself was called as `Bhikku' (monk), and who called a conference of Jain monks for compiling Jain texts, would have given all the five lines of the Mahamantra in the inscription. And after two hundred years of his time, the Mathura inscription also would have given all the five lines. But both the inscriptions give only two lines:

Namo Arhantanam
Namo Savv Siddha Nam

Another inscription of the ancient period, which is carved at a cave at village Pale in Pune district of Maharashtra, gives just one line:

Namo Arhantanam

All the inscriptions have only one or two lines just because at that time the later lines were not in existence.

The first addition was a third and single line, which was added for monks:

Namo Savva Sahunam

This line was acceptable one but I think that the monks were not happy with a single line for them, so they added more lines:

Namo Ayariyanam
Namo Uvajjhayanam

Then they rearranged the last three lines by putting Namo Savv Sahunam as last line and adding Loye to it.

In Jain literature, Namokar Mantra is first found in Shatkhandagam, the Digambar Jain Agams. These agams were compiled by Acharya Pushpdant and Bhutbali. But the original Shatkhandagams are not available and we know the subjects in it only by Dhavala Tika, which is written far later. In Shwetambar literature, Namokar Mantra is found in Bhagwati Sutra. The Sutra literature also was written far later.

The oldest available Jain Agam is Acharang Sutra in Shwetambar literature and Moolachar in Digambar literature. Both the texts are most important and both of them do not give any reference to Namokar Mantra.

I think that you would have realized now that namokar mantra is not Anadhi-nidhan, eternal or beginning less, it was written at some time and it was later developed.

Further Corruptions:
The Namokar Mantra It is in Ardhamagadhi language, but the word Mantra itself is a Sanskrit one. So it is clear that there was no title (Caption) for the Mantra and it too was added in later period. Further lines ‘Eso Panch Namokkaro…’ were added at the end. To differentiate this Mantra Shwetambars started to call it as Navakar Mantra, while Digambars started to recite Eso Panch Namoyaaro instead of Eso Panch Namokkaro.

Why Inscriptions are more important?
Inscriptions are very important sources of finding the facts than literature. The archaeologists can tell in which year or time period an inscription was written. The more important thing about inscriptions is no one can change or add lines in it and if anybody does it, the archaeologists can find it. But it is not easy to tell about the exact time of writing of ancient texts. Moreover each text gets additions by later writers and critics. This is happened with Namokar Mantra also.

We should know that nobody, whether it is a Mantra or a monk that too corrupted one, can save us from our sins. We ourselves are responsible for our deeds. So forget the Mantras and monks, be loyal to your intellect, be loyal to originality. You do not need any agents to acquire true knowledge. Once you start to use your own intlect, you will learn to put truth at the highest place, instead of giving prominance to persons.

1 comment:

  1. Due respect to great Scholars, in regard to the issue raised above, even if the issue raised is a fact, still kindly modify the title,let the changes be not named as corruption - can be modification or addition. Corruption refers to dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. The Great Saints Who added or appended might have done so by keeping in mind the real need of the society at that time for amicability and co-existence. In the absence of Thirthankar and orignal Sastra, Sadhus only the source of clarity for Jainism. In these circumstances, paying obeisances to Acharyas, Upadhyayas and Sarva Sadhus are very essential and necessary.

    Pancha Mantra is Basic Foundation of Jainism, let us not make a corruption issue in that.